Emperor Qin Shihuang (259-210 BC, reigned 246-221 BC) was the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty,and also is the first emperor of china. Upon the death of his father, he ascended the throne at the age of thirteen. His father’s powerful chancellor Lu Buwei (died 235 BC) served as co-regent until he was 21 years old. He soon forced the former regent into exile and started launching military campaigns to unify the country.
By 221 BC the Qin armies had crushed the remnants of the ancient feudal order. All China was united under the iron rule of King Ying Zheng or Zhao Zheng), who set up his capital in Xianyan (near Xi’an today) and proclaimed himself Qinshihuangdi–first emperor of the Qin Dynasty. Supported by his Legalist minister Li Si( died 208 BC), he proceeded to consolidate the new state. He strengthened the northern frontiers against the Xiongnv, a fierce and warlike people, became a constant threat to Han China ofter the 3rd century B C. Construction of the of wall cost a million lives. The emperor linked up the sections of walls by the previous kings of Chao and Yan into a continuous rampart more than 2,000 kilometres long with Meng Tian (died 210 BC), a Qin general, as the e commander. Rigid standardization of the written language, of weights and measures and of wagon axles (important in the soft loess roads of North China) was enforced, and over it all first emperor set up a centralized bureaucracy controlled by the watchful eye of censors.
Who built the the Terracotta Army
Emperor Qin Shihuang was known for many contradictory persons, including that of a conqueror, an enlightened leader, a merciless tyrant, a builder and a destroyer. During his 29-year rule, he unified the country and transformed the land into what we now call China. He ordered his workers to create thousands of terracotta warriors to guard his tomb after his death. The warriors are dressed in armour, carry spears or other weapons and stand on average at about 1.9 metres tall. Each wears an army uniform that distinguishes the soldier’s rank from bowmen to infantrymen to generals. An archer kneels in the front of the pit, ready to fire volleys to stop the enemy. The accurately proportioned figurines seem so real-to-life, with each having a distinct facial expression. The bodies are said to have been mass-produced, but the hands and heads were made individually, possibly to portray real soldiers of the time.
Emperor Qin Shihuang spent ten years from 230 to 221 BC to wipe out all the six different states one after another and established the first centralized feudal state, the Qin dynasty (the first and the shortest dynasty from 221 to 210 BC) in Chinese history. He proclaimed himself Qin Shihuangdi, the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty, and all the important officials of the central and local governments were to be appointed and dismissed by him. During his reign, he worked out a uniform code of law and standardized currency, weight and measures and even the written language.